USA, chapel with stained glass Windows Stained glass (FR. vitrage, from lat. Vitrum – glass), ornamental or decorative composition plot of glass and other materials, pervious to light.
Stained glass – decorative element in the decoration of Windows is really for decorative purposes, or as a measure of when you need to hide bad view from the window (for example, a blank wall of the neighboring house, in the doorway of 2-3 meters between buildings). Is of colored glass, or colored plexiglass, membrane between such glass elements are connected. Used to connect used tin, lead, metals easily tractable. Now the glass elements can be fixed on a solid adhesive basis. As a rule, in accordance with one of the techniques laid out stained glass on the finished sheet of glass, from small pieces of glass. The connection between the pieces of glass solidify and are colored black. In the window with the stained glass can be used artificial lights.
Stained glass Windows of Gothic cathedrals was used not only for aesthetic reasons, but also due to the inability of the medieval craftsmen to produce high quality glass large scales. Were known in ancient Egypt.
Color in sacred stained glass Windows have symbolic meaning, but its primary function is the creation of a mystical atmosphere. The play of light penetrating through the Windows of sacred buildings should complement the feeling of piety, reverence, tvoreniyam, decor and repeatedly underlined by the direction of the Shrine up to the sky. In conjunction with the Latin service, and the Gregorian choir Gothic stained glass did medieval man – ascetic, pious, humble Church, as an institution.
The stained glass of the middle ages in Europe
Ornamental stained glass Windows in the Romanesque day coexisted with stained glass story. Among beginners – stained glass masters of Germany and France.
A special place in the creation of stained glass of the Gothic era occupied France, a country where Gothic architecture was born in fact and that the neighbouring country was Considered exemplary. The more I become the Windows of Gothic cathedrals, the large and stained glass. The fate of the monumental painting on the walls of Gothic cathedrals is significantly reduced due to the actual disappearance of the wall has Lancet Windows. The Windows of the Gothic Cathedral Notre Dame de Pairs have already been 12 feet high. But the 13th-century stained-glass Windows in the Cathedral were destroyed. The role of monumental painting take altarpieces and partially – story stained glass Windows.
Stained glass Windows decorated not only cathedrals, but also small chapels in the castles of the nobles and the king. The most famous Saint Chapelle in Paris, built in 1243-1248 HS Chapel has high foundations, while the upper part is a true architectural flashlight, the walls of which are entirely filled with stained glass.
Model Of The Saint Chapelle
The so-called rose of Saint Chapelle (round window-stained glass window)
Chancel of Saint Chapelle
Ancient stained glass of Saint Chapelle
Significant jewel production is not stopped. To decorate the Cathedral of Chartres stained-glass Windows, combined 43 artisan corporations in the city. Artisans, however, ordered the masters to do the inserts at the temple stained glass – the scenes work of handicraft corporations and their logos. Customers winemakers stained glass Mana agreed to donate the Church the stained glass Windows and candles, therefore agreed that the candle burns down and disappears, and the stained glass Windows to Shine their light for many years.
Before the builders removed the walls and vaults, which gave the opportunity to work under the roof and to pave the floor, to insert the stained-glass Windows, to equip the interior.
The stained glass in the Renaissance
St. Catherine Of Alexandria. Stained glass window from the North of the Netherlands. 1475 Stained glass Windows do not disappear in a day of revival. But replaced (at considerable cost and great trademarkes) sculpture and reliefs, monumental painting and easel painting. The stained glass involuntarily closer to easel painting, did not impact well on the characteristics of the industry. Prior to the creation of stained glass attracted outstanding artists performing as easel paintings, cartons for stained glass, but the industry gradually fell into decay. The cartoons for the stained glass Windows had
In the 19th century
A period of decline gradually gave way to the revival of interest in stained glass only in the 19th century. But have been lost as significant works of the middle ages (beaten with stones stained glass in France during the revolution 1789-1793), and lost secrets of the medieval and the technology of their creation. Masters of Western Europe are working to restore a forgotten technology open new and (new recipes melting glass, its color, the use of copper instead of lead in the membranes etc.). In Europe, for example, the manufacture of stained glass was engaged in “Workshop of painting on glass” at the Royal porcelain manufactory in Munich, but the demand for stained glass grew and not Udovolstviya.
There are even cheap substitutes of stained glass – painting glass with oil paints without fixing, gluing transparent paper with colored drawings on the glass.
A feature of the use of stained glass in the 19th century was for their use not only in cathedrals. In the era of eclecticism stained glass Windows adorn the palaces of the old and new bourgeois elite, a new social institution – banks (palaces for money), railway stations, exhibition halls.
The stained glass Windows of the 19th century very close to modern painting and more interesting examples arise only when copying old designs or in the Styler. Among the distinguished stilistov days – the creative Association of the pre-Raphaelites in England
The pre-Raphaelite stained-glass Windows
Representatives of Association have declared the authorities of Dorofeeva artists of the day. It was a protest against academism Pomerol that he considered the works of Raphael Santi samples and reassessment of established art values. Logically the pre-Raphaelites turned to the works of the transitional period from the middle ages to the Renaissance, and then to the works of the middle ages. Therefore, stylization was applied to the restoration of medieval and Renaissance miniatures to the paintings of biblical subjects, to the creation of boards Arras, cartons for stained glass. Particularly successful samples created by Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898).
The stained glass Windows on its Board successfully beat decorative qualities of plants, inscriptions in Gothic letters, conventional clothes biblical characters with long wrinkles, bright or dull colors (stained glass “Adam”, “Christ the good shepherd”, “the Annunciation”, “adoration of the Magi”).
The stained glass of the art Nouveau style (secession)
A special place in the art of stained glass took a day of art Nouveau (secession). The accumulated experience and improvement of technology of making stained glass gave a short, but the heyday of stained glass techniques. In the modern era finally passed the denial from copying the painting and emerge with their own compositions based on the stained glass specifics. Among the towns that has preserved a significant collection of stained glass of the art Nouveau period as the capitals (Vienna, St. Petersburg, Paris, London) and new bourgeois centers (Lviv in Ukraine to Barcelona in Spain, Manaus in Brazil, Moscow in Russia, etc.). Cartoons for stained-glass Windows created
Renowned designer, Tiffany improved the production of the glass and the technology of manufacturing of stained-glass Windows. The owner of a glass factory, he created a new type of glass with color schemes. Such glass does not require additional surface treatment after the cutting according to the template you can immediately start to create a future stained glass window. Instead of lead Tiffany used a membrane made of copper, and lined with the figure recorded tin rations. Began making stained glass lamp shades for lamps where stained glass produced in wavy or arcuate surface. Stained glass Tiffany lampshades were very popular, although were not the main products of the designer, became the subject of copying other manufacturers.
Flat Tiffany stained glass usually had floral character and a decorative purpose.
The stained glass in the 20th century
The first world war and the tragic events of the early 20th century prompted the disappearance of art Nouveau and the suspension of making stained glass. But Experiments with new technology and materials has not stopped. This also applies to the creation of stained glass. In the 20th century a new stage of development had a sacral stained-glass window dedicated to Church and secular, Church. In the 20th century stained glass has absorbed all the rapid style of the era from the conventional realism of geographical maps to abstract, from the explosion of colors to the style of blue and white and no other colors.
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