9 the most ancient fortresses of the world
Contrary to popular belief, the oldest fortress walls can boast not Europe, but Asia and the Caucasus. Forbes magazine chose nine places to look at in varying degrees preserved fortress, compared to which medieval — replica.
Usually, when you hear the word “fortress” in the first place have associations with the middle Ages, Western Europe, the Teutonic and other knights. Coupled with all these castles, Romanesque and Gothic in Europe are a dime a dozen, and they were all clear. As for really ancient fortresses, Subpart, the word “fortress” means half of the surviving walls, and even a few stones.
For someone to be disappointed that the alleged attraction is just ruins, and someone the fact that it ruins something that was built before our era, you will want to go on a trip just for them.
Location: Syria, Aleppo
In Syria in one of the most ancient cities in the world, Aleppo is the eponymous fortress. The first construction of its walls began in 944 ad. Pyatidesyatimetrovy, on which stands the fortress was inhabited already in the III Millennium BC, the Fortress was built 13 years, and then came the time impressive in its scope and development of the fortress and the city itself. While, as usual, came running invaders-the Mongols, so that the walls of Aleppo went badly. Restored and strengthened the fortress after their first foray, in the fourteenth century the inhabitants of the city were forced again to defend against the Mongols. Finally, in the fifteenth century, the Mongols returned again, led by Tamerlane. In addition to the attempts of the great Timur, the fortress survived the conquest by the Ottomans, the invasions of the crusaders and much more. And in 1828, an earthquake destroyed the fortress of Aleppo is so strong that it is reduced still.
Location: Vietnam, Hanoi
Fortress Koloa is where up to 207 BC there was a Kingdom of Aulac based Grinevetskiy tribes auville and lakwete. Now a suburb of Hanoi. Aulak became the second vietsky government — the first was Vanlang, the capital of which is captured aubiet An Duong Vuong, who created Aulak and became its first ruler. All this activity, he has deployed at a time when Vanlang was vulnerable, and intentions of the Chinese to take viatskie lands were particularly serious. So thanks to the first and the only king of Awlaki freedom of the Vietnamese from the Chinese has lasted 50 years longer than I could, but in the end, the Chinese still occupied the Northern possession of the viets and then Aulac. The legend says that the defeated An Duong Vuong killed himself, crocuses into the river from the wall of his fortress: the preserved remains of the walls Koloa and now reach 12 meters in height.
Location: UK, Dorset
The so-called maiden Castle, which emerged already in the Iron age — ancient structure so that the fortresses in the usual meaning of the word may have only formally. In fact, it offers people the Neolithic strengthening, representing ditches and embankments, which subsequently has improved the people of later ages. The second generation of the inhabitants of Maiden come to these places about in the XX century before our era; their forces the length of the embankments rose to 546 meters. But rebuilding the hillfort of Maiden, this generation residents soon left him. Third shift inhabitants in the Maiden appeared about the third century BC, the fortifications were Then first coated on the inner side of the tree, and later, in the first century — stone. Soon the settlement was attacked by the Romans, slaughtered its inhabitants, settled there and built themselves a Maiden in this castle, to this day, however, nedotrogi.
Location: Georgia, Sagarejo district, village Ujarma
Ujarma is a village in the Sagarejo municipality, located on the route from Tbilisi to Telavi. In a very distant past — the walled city, part of the state of Kartli, one of the first States on the territory of modern Georgia. Although almost all of Georgia can be considered an archaeological reserve, fortress Ujarma deserves special attention. It was established, according to Chronicles, king Aspagus, it is the same Varaz-Bakur, a protege of the king of Persia, Shapur, in the III century BC. In X century the fortress was destroyed by the Arabs in the twelfth and restored by king George the Third is well-preserved buildings with such a long history there are not so many. And most importantly, in the Chronicles it is said that in Ujarma St. Nino has established one of the three crosses, marking the adoption of Christianity in Georgia.
Where: Bolivia, the valley of the river Chung, Maya
Discovered as recently as April of this year, the ruins of a fortress in the area of Illimani has puzzled archeologists. The fact that the opening has got a double found in the remains of the fortress, which are so well preserved that remains to call them somehow, even incorrect, are not connected to any known in our days of ancient civilizations. Find — and this is not only a fortress but also several more buildings, including the temple, for living in the area the Indians a surprise, of course, did not: the existence of the citadel was known. Scientists still assume that civilization, which had erected this fortress, in the history of Andean cultures stands between the Incas and before them of Tiwanaku. Unexplored culture was named after the river in the valley which is a godsend — Chung, Maya.
Location: Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan (a sovereign Republic within Uzbekistan)
Khorezm, a powerful ancient state, occupied the territories of modern Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan Karalpakstan. Before in the V century the capital was moved to Urgench (present-day Turkmen city), the center of Khorezm was situated in Karakalpak lands. There is concentrated the largest number of preserved buildings of the early Khorezm — in the area called Ellikkala, which, incidentally, means “fifty fortresses”. 50 intact fortresses here, of course, will count, but of archaeological objects as such in this area about 300. Many of them are the monuments of Zoroastrianism, such as the fortress Janbas-Kala, whose inhabitants professed this religion. Built in the IV century BC, Janbas-Kala was inhabited until the first century BC when, as scientists believe, the people inside the walls of the fortress the settlement was captured and destroyed by nomads.
Location: Armenia, Yerevan
The fortress of Erebuni, Yerevan under standing on the hill of ARIN-Berd, was built in the heyday of the state of Urartu in 782 BC. Stronger States in Western Asia did not exist then, and the king of Urartu Argishti I did, that expanded the territory of his Kingdom, grabbing tidbits of neighboring lands, including in the Ararat valley. The power of Urartu by the Assyrians, but Erebuni and Teishebaini — the other Urartian city-fortress, the ruins of which are also found in Armenia, has experienced a long history of struggle Urartians and Assyrians. Destroyed the Kingdom of Urartu, the tribes of the steppe — the Scythians, the Cimmerians and the Medes. Erebuni at all and surrendered without a fight: the Urartians just left him, fleeing to Teishebaini. For posterity it was a good thing: as Erebuni, in contrast to the ancient, no one stormed and burned, was preserved murals on the walls of the fortress.
Location: Ukraine, Crimea, Sudak
Near Sudak is Karaul-Oba mountain. On the cliff in the foothills of the ruins of the walls of the fortress of Asandros — perhaps the oldest in the Crimea. The fortress is named after the Bosporan king asander, who in 46 BC fully seized power over the Kingdom after the previous ruler of Bosporos, pharnakes recklessly chose him as his Deputy, while he went off to conquer Rome. Historians have ample evidence to believe that it is Asandr began the construction of this fortress, which was necessary Bosporan Kingdom for protection from sea pirates. On approximately 2500 square meters of the fortress housed a garrison consisting, presumably, of 100. Oddly enough, despite the magnitude of the fortress ruins, discovered only in 1982 archaeologist Igor Baranov and his expedition.
Location: Russia, Staraya Ladoga
In regard to the history of Staraya Ladoga, a lot of discrepancies. Most significantly is the fact that the first buildings on this site appeared to 753 year built, and they were Scandinavians, and at 760-x their settlement was demolished by Ilmen slovens. Instead of slovens, according to historians, 830-e came the Vikings. About what happened after that, as in everything connected with the Vikings, start controversy in the sources. According to one version, was called Rurik to reign, first in Ladoga and then moved to Novgorod. True or not, but the Ladoga fortress called Rurikovo. Perhaps in Ladoga buried Prophetic Oleg — and again, it is unknown whether this is so or is it the grave of Oleg in Kiev. Built a fortress in 870-e, but in 997th it was destroyed by the son of the Norwegian ruler of a Mighty Hakon Eirik. In the year 1114, the fortress was rebuilt, of stone, and in 1495-m have substantially reinforced.