The Gothic style of architecture
Gothic — (. -gotisch, Franz.- gothique, ital. — gotico) — architectural and artistic style of art in Western Europe, which reached its peak in XIII-XV centuries which replaced the Romanesque style of the early middle ages. Crowned by the Gothic architecture of the middle ages, representing a mixture soars in the sky with pointed spires, shining with bright colors of the stained glass Windows and intricate sculptural decorations.
The Gothic style developed in Europe due to the rapid growth of cities. The need to collect the city’s population at Sunday mass has become the main impetus for the clergy to look for new architectural solutions for construction of cathedrals, as the Romanesque churches could not accommodate the growing congregation. It is logical that the first documentary mention about the Gothic belongs to the Abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris. The emergence of the Gothic style can be called Romanesque overcome, despite the fact that for a long time, both styles continued to develop at the same time.
The paradox of the emergence of the Gothic style, soaring all the forms of which reflect irrationality, mystical dematerialization are technical solutions of building constructions. The purpose of such decisions was the desire to minimize the weight and casinobook walls, and to facilitate the vault. This was accomplished by using strengthening frame arches and thinner padding. These arches were named ribs (FR. nervure — crease, rib, vein). They were meant to be binding between the square pillars in the span of the nave (from lat. navis — ship) is the Central passage. Architects have found a relationship between the height of the arches and their shape is the most convenient turned out to be not semi-circular and pointed shape, and also the higher arch, the less the thrust was at the side walls and supports. These designs have covered the space of large dimensions, and almost indefinitely to increase the height of the cathedrals. The increase in the lateral thrust, at high altitude buildings, offset by the outer supporting pillars — buttresses (FR. contreforse —protivoskol) that are associated with the supports of the arches of the flying buttresses (FR. arcboutant —reference arch) is inclined arches. To strengthen the buttresses were used turrets — pinnacles. To freed from the load of the walls, it became possible to penetrate the huge Windows that led to the flourishing of the art of stained glass. Thus, the new design led to the creation of artistic style.
Distinguish features of the formation of French, German and other national interpretations of the Gothic style. Very vivid description of early French Gothic style can be found in the novel by V. Hugo “Notre Dame de Paris”.
In Germany Gothic recognised as a national architectural style.
Features of the style are the large round Windows with stained-glass compositions — the rose, tall Lancet Windows, sculpture mystical monsters called chimeras. Color Gothic red, blue, yellow, purple, gold, black.
In the interior of the Gothic is a large Lancet window, multi-window, dark simple furniture, expressive verticality of structural elements, etc.