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The most ancient structures
Ancient civilizations that existed on earth tens of thousands of years ago have disappeared long ago. But they left behind numerous facts stay that is now admired by grateful descendants.…

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The Gothic interior.
Gothic - the next stage in the development of medieval art, second pan-European style. The term "Gothic" coined by Italian humanists to denote everything that is not related to classic,…

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The great wall and other fortifications

Now, let me responsibly say that the Great wall is not a legend, it does exist, it stretches for miles 5660, she is really over two thousand years. I visited there in September 2002, with your own eyes examined about fifty kilometers of the wall and spoke personally with a credible Chinese Museum workers, rasskazovsky about the history of the Wall.

In fact, the actual wall is only part of the grandiose fortifications on the border between agricultural civilization and nomadic steppe. The characters “Chan” and “Chan” (Japanese reading “those” and “Jo”), which form the name of the great Wall in Chinese and Japanese, does not mean “great-wall” and “long-strengthening” – the difference is noticeable, isn’t it? It is possible to allocate four basic components Chan-Chen:(1) FORTS and fortresses at the passes; (2) the chain of watchtowers; (3) rear garrisons and a network of signal towers; (4) the actual wall, between guard towers in a single line.

(1) FORTS and fortresses at the passes guarded the main roads leading to China, the most dangerous direction, from the locking of the Great silk road Fort Siaurine in the West to the seaside pass the Shanghaiguan in the East.

(2) a Chain of watchtowers stretching 5660 kilometers, was used for monitoring the border area. Each tower was usually two levels; the upper was used as an Observatory platform, while the first floor was replaced by rest as the soldiers. In the era of the Ming (1368 – 1644) the garrison of the tower was 16 (guard, awake and resting fives and head), successive every three months fresh people from the rear of the garrison.

(3) Rear garrisons were located at a considerable distance from the chains of watchtowers, up to a hundred kilometers. Immediately upon receipt of alarm from one of the passes or from watchtowers the army acted to cover dangerous areas. The signal passes a hundred miles an hour thanks to the signal (or wire) towers on top of which fires were kindled. By manipulating the smoke, or hiding in the dark flames with a rag, “Telegraph” signal towers were capable of transmitting simple signals that report the direction and magnitude of the threat.

(4) in fact, the wall to patrol the border and solid floors million mountain trails. Raised over the steep ridges to a height of 14 meters, this “trail patrol” provided a good overview and allowed the Chinese to safely handle a field directly in the border area. For better execution of the patrol function wall (maybe better to say “the road”) was laid mainly on the crests of mountain ranges. In these places it is, incidentally, no other function to perform and could not – see photo. Different sections of the wall were built for Hiking (see photo) and equestrian patrols. Some sections near Beijing, such as madalinski plot width of 5 meters, were wide enough to transfer reinforcements from one Fort to another.

The Gothic style in art: architecture and painting
The term "Gothic" in art originated in the distant Renaissance, replacing a Romanesque style, becoming the final step of art of the Middle ages. More about the Gothic style said,…

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The secrets of Gothic cathedrals
Gothic – a style that became the hallmark of the middle Ages. She was not the only style of the era, but only the last and perhaps the most spectacular.…

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